*(Q) Enquiry about the CHOW Test in SPSS
The user is looking for the CHOW test in SPSS.
If you want to know what that is there is a clear description at:
http://www.stata.com/support/faqs/stat/chow.html
(No I am not advertising a competitor as it is not in stata apparently
either!)
*(A) Posted to SPSSX-L on 2001/10/10 by David Matheson (SPSS Technical Support)
There are a pair of solutions on our AnswerNet for performing the Chow
test - no pen & paper work required. I've pasted them below. The first
solution was written more recently and uses the UNIANOVA procedure
(Analyze->General Linear Model->Univariate in the menus). The second
solution is older, uses the Regression procedure and is slighltly more
labor-intensive in that it requires you to compute some interaction
variables before running the Regression.
Solution 100009917: An easy way to perform a Chow test
Q.
Can you show me how to perform a Chow test in SPSS?
A.
The Chow test provides a test of whether the set of linear regression
parameters (i.e., the intercepts and slopes) is equal across groups. SPSS
AnswerNet Solution ID 100000298 presents a thorough description of what the
Chow test is, how it may be calculated, and how to use COMPUTE statements
and the SPSS REGRESSION procedure to obtain a Chow test. The present
solution shows a more convenient way to conduct this test using SPSS's
General Linear Model (GLM) procedure.
The easiest way to do this is to build a simple model from the dialog boxes,
paste the syntax into an SPSS Syntax Editor window, make a slight
modification to the DESIGN subcommand, and then run the commands from the
editor window. We'll show you how to do this using a hypothetical example.
Let's say we have a dependent variable named Y, a continuous predictor named
X, and a categorical variable named Group. Here are the steps you'll want
to follow to conduct the Chow test.
1. From the menus, go to Analyze->General Linear
Model->Univariate....
2. In the Univariate dialog box, move Y into the box labeled
Dependent Variable.
3. Move the grouping variable Group into the box labeled Fixed
Factor(s).
4. Move the continuous predictor X into the box labeled
Covariate(s).
5. Now, instead of clicking OK, click PASTE. The contents of your
syntax window should appear as follows.
UNIANOVA
y BY group WITH x
/METHOD = SSTYPE(3)
/INTERCEPT = INCLUDE
/CRITERIA = ALPHA(.05)
/DESIGN = x group .
6. In the SPSS Syntax Editor Window, modify the DESIGN subcommand
to read as shown below.
UNIANOVA
y BY group WITH x
/METHOD = SSTYPE(3)
/INTERCEPT = INCLUDE
/CRITERIA = ALPHA(.05)
/DESIGN = x group*x.
7. Finally, run the commands by going to the menu in the SPSS
Syntax Editor Window and selecting Run->All.
Including the Group*X interaction--in the absence of a main effect for
Group--causes SPSS GLM to pool the Sums of Squares and degrees of freedom
from the sources Group and Group*X when it reports the F-test for Group*X.
Given a model that included Group and Group*X, the Group term would test
differences in intercepts and the Group*X term would test differences in
slopes. Pooling these terms into a single Group*X term means that the
F-test and the associated p-value for the Group*X test is the overall test
of whether the full set of regression parameters (i.e., the slopes and
intercepts taken together) differ among groups. Hence, the Group*X effect
in this model is the Chow test we are looking for.
*****************************
Solution 100000298 : Chow test for equal sets of regression coefficients
across groups
Q.
What is the formula for the Chow test for equal regression
parameters across groups? Will SPSS perform this test?
A.
There is no SPSS procedure or keyword which requests the Chow test
by name, but the test is easy to obtain from the REGRESSION procedure.
The Chow test provides a test of whether the set of linear regression
parameters, i.e. the intercepts and slopes, is equal across groups.
For example, suppose we use the variable SALNOW from SPSS for
Windows' bank.sav sample data set as our dependent variable and
EDLEVEL as our predictor. Also suppose that we want to know whether
the intercept and slope for this regression are equal for men and women.
The algorithm for the Chow test is as follows:
1. Run the regression on men and women together and note the
residual sum of squares and degrees of freedom. Call this
RSS1 and DF1.
2. Run the regression separately for men and women and total
the residual sums of squares and degrees of freedom from the
two regressions. Call these RSS2 and DF2.
3. Find (RSS1 - RSS2)/(DF1 - DF2) .
4. Divide the result of step3 by RSS2/DF2 and compare this result to
the F distribution with (DF1-DF2) and DF2 degrees of freedom.
The null hypothesis for this test is that the regression intercept
and slope are both independent of gender.
You can perform this test in SPSS REGRESSION and also obtain separate
tests for the equality of intercept and slope across genders. The group
variable should be a dummy variable which equals 0 for 1 group; 1 for
the other. The bank.sav variable SEX is already in this form, with a
value of 1 representing female. An interaction term is computed as the
product of the predictor of interest (EDLEVEL) and SEX. REGRESSION is
run first with only EDLEVEL as a predictor. SEX and the interaction
term, called EDSEX in this example, are then entered in a second step
with a second /METHOD = ENTER subcommand. The change in R square is
requested with the keyword CHA in the /STATISTICS subcommand. This
keyword also requests a test of whether the change in R square is
greater than 0. This test is equivalent to the CHOW test as calculated
from steps 1 to 4 above. The standard statistical output from
REGRESSION also provides tests and confidence intervals for the SEX
and EDSEX coefficients, which are effectively adjustments to the
intercept and slope parameters, respectively, for female respondents.
The REGRESSION command to perform this analysis is presented below.
COMPUTE edsex = edlevel * sex .
REGRESSION
/DESCRIPTIVES MEAN STDDEV CORR SIG N
/MISSING LISTWISE
/STATISTICS COEFF OUTS CI R ANOVA END CHA
/CRITERIA=PIN(.05) POUT(.10)
/NOORIGIN
/DEPENDENT salnow
/METHOD=ENTER edlevel
/METHOD=ENTER sex edsex .
The above command can be run from the graphic user interface (GUI) in SPSS.
The interaction terms can be computed from the Transform->Compute menu.
Blocks of variables can be entered by clicking the Next button (above the
Independent(s) box in the main Regression dialog) after entering the
predictors for each block except the last. The 'Change in R squared' (CHA)
test is available from
the Statistics dialog of the Regression procedure. Users of SPSS versions
prior to SPSS 7.5 should note that the test of change in R squared can not
be requested from the dialog boxes. The simplest workaround for this absence
is
to build most of the command in the dialogs, paste the command to a syntax
window,
and add the CHA keyword to the /Statistics subcommand.
If there were K groups whose regression coefficients were to be
compared, you would compute K-1 dummy variables and multiply each of
these by the independent variable(s) to produce K-1 (sets of)
interaction variables.
The Chow Test is introduced in Gregory Chow's paper, 'Tests of Equality
Between Sets of Coefficients in Two Linear Regressions', Econometrica, 1960,
28(3), 591-605.
For discussions of the dummy variable approach to the Chow test, see a
pair of papers by Damodar Gujarati in The American Statistician,
1970, 24(1), 50-52; and 1970, 24(5), 18-22.